Those behaviors can be deliberately fostered and encouraged by organizations or they can be unknowingly deterred. One proactive organizational strategy is to encourage situational leadership by those without formal title or authority.
In a recent research project, Marie partnered with colleague, Dr. Reid Spearman, to study such leadership in a graduate university setting during COVID-19. They found that doctoral students who created their own support network developed a circular model of leading that allowed students to experience belonging in a virtual environment, to share emotions, to get specific and practical advice, and to finish their projects.
Using Nussbaum’s (2011) capabilities framework, Sonnet and Spearman concluded that as student capabilities increased, so did social justice.
You can read their full study in Chapter 1 of Driving Social Innovation: How Unexpected Leadership is Transforming Society.